L’anacardier, un arbre aux usages multiples

| 10 août 2011

L’anacardier est ‘’un arbre aux usages multiples’’, qui peut être adapté à diverses conditions agro-écologiques, selon un document remis à la presse lors de la célébration, dimanche, de la journée nationale de l’arbre, tenue à Loul Sessène, dans la région de Fatick (centre).

L’anacardier ou anacardium occidental, parrain de la journée nationale de l’arbre, est de la famille des anacardiaceae, originaire d’Amérique du Sud, à la cime évasée ne dépassant pas 12 mètres de haut. Ses feuilles sont simples et persistantes, alternes, ovales et coriaces.

Les fleurs blanches teintées de rose, parfumées, sont réunies en inflorescences terminales. Les fruits ont une coque âcre et toxique qui abrite une amende blanche, comestible : la noix d’acajou. Ils se forment sous un pédoncule gonflé, charnu et juteux nommé « pomme de cajou ».

L’anacardier est largement cultivé en Afrique, aux Antilles, dans le Nord-est brésilien, en Asie du Sud-est et en Inde. La noix d’acajou est la principale exportation de la Guinée-Bissau.

Adapté à diverses conditions agro-écologiques, l’anacardier est résistant aux fortes chaleurs mais très sensible aux basses températures. On les trouve généralement à des altitudes assez basses (moins de 500 m).

Ses exigences varient suivant l’usage. Très faibles en reboisement (il nécessite peu d’eau, pas d’engrais ni de soins spéciaux et peut pousser sur les terrains pauvres comme latérite), elles augmentent en exploitation fruitière.

En début de plantation, les anacardiers sont recommandés dans les systèmes de culture intercalaires, de plus en plus pratiqués actuellement associés avec les cultures annuelles. En Afrique, on le trouve souvent au milieu d’autres cultures.

L’anacardier commence à produire dès l’âge de trois ans dans les bonnes conditions de culture. Un arbre peut produire 15 kg de fruits par an dans de bonnes conditions. Sa durée de vie moyenne atteint de 20 à 30 ans.

Par ailleurs, le recours aux plantations d’anacardiers constitue une solution durable préconisée dans la lutte contre la dégradation des sols et de l’environnement.

Avec la durée de son exploitation (20 ans environ), l’anacardier contribue à lutter contre l’érosion côtière et à stabiliser localement l’écosystème, au même titre que les autres essences forestières (augmentation du couvert végétal, restauration de la fertilité des sols épuisés).

Le bois d’anacardier est un bon combustible et son écorce peut être utilisée pour tanner les peaux et ses fruits pour l’alimentation. Il est également valorisé pour ses propriétés pharmacologiques.

Le baume obtenu à partir de sa coque représente une source importante de composés phénoliques naturels qui peuvent être utilisés dans la fabrication d’éléments de friction pour l’industrie automobile, dans l’industrie de revêtements spéciaux (vernis, matières plastiques) et pour la préparation d’insecticides.

Ce qui fait dire au secrétaire général du ministère de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la nature que la noix d’acajou est ‘’une aubaine pour les exploitants, les transformateurs et les transitaires, entre autres’’.

« Le ministre d’Etat Djibo Leïty Kâ veut que d’ici quelques temps Fatick devienne un bassin anacardier comme on a connu le bassin arachidier », a annoncé Saliou Rama Ka.

Source: APS

Category: Communauté

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